Once the manufacture has created the board according to the specifications, the prototype is then tested and retested. Every need of the board should be reviewed for efficiency and reliability. The board is independently tested to ensure functionality before being integrated into the environment for which it is designed. Each step is documented and recorded. Any flaws should be handled completely, and in some cases a new prototype with modifications needs to be built.
Contemporary Printed Circuit Board technology has led to a considerable reduction in cross-conductor cross-sections, resulting in a reduction in space requirements and increased packaging density in electrical components. However, contemporary VLSI and other multi-pin configuration devices have tremendously increased the density of the package and hence the focus of the interconnect lines.
This has given rise to complex design issues such as capacitance, cross-talk, noise and unacceptable voltage drops due to parallel signal lines. These problems could not be adequately addressed in single-sided or double-sided plates, requiring an extension to the manufacture of the multi-layer circuit board.
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